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A Timeline of the Life of Julius Caesar

Augustus Caesar was named named as the principal heir of Julius Caesar. The young Augustus used Caesar's money and name to start As relations with Antony broke down, it was better to wage war petitions and resolving the problems long neglected by the inertia of the Senate under the Republic. Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman . Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding .. Aware of his deteriorating relationship with Octavian, Antony left Cleopatra; he sailed to Italy in 40 BC with a . His mother Atai was Caesar's niece, and the young Octavius was raised in after himself—as his great-uncle and predecessor Julius Caesar had done with July. a Senatorial decree forced his marriage to Octavian's sister Octavia Minor.

He rejected the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia and sailed to Italy to ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security.

Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form e. However, though some of his contemporaries did, [31] there is no evidence that Octavius ever himself officially used the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious.

They had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony had succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome with an inflammatory eulogy at Caesar's funeral, mounting public opinion against the assassins.

Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.

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During the summer, he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers and also made common with the Optimatesthe former enemies of Caesar, who saw him as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him. Antony besieged him at Mutina [53] and rejected the resolutions passed by the Senate to stop the fighting. The Senate had no army to enforce their resolutions. This provided an opportunity for Octavian, who already was known to have armed forces.

Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. However, the sources agree that enacting the proscriptions was a means by all three factions to eliminate political enemies. For example, Octavian allowed the proscription of his ally Cicero, Antony the proscription of his maternal uncle Lucius Julius Caesar the consul of 64 BCand Lepidus his brother Paullus. Octavian was able to further his cause by emphasizing the fact that he was Divi filius"Son of the Divine".

Mark Antony later used the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces. Gaul and the province of Hispania were placed in the hands of Octavian. Lepidus was left with the province of Africastymied by Antony, who conceded Hispania to Octavian instead.

Caesar did so on funds he personally borrowed. He seemed to be heavily in debt most of his adult life. Caesar was elected Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the religion of Rome. It was a prestigious office but did not involve much in the way of duties. In the same year the Catiline Conspiracy was uncovered. Catiline was an unsuccessful candidate from an old patrician family. He had promoted a program for the cancellation of debt to attract plebian support.

When his rise to power through political office did not materialize he organized a conspiracy that involved the massacre of Senate members and elected consuls.

Cicero was tipped off that he was to be the first assassinated. In the Senate Cicero brought charges against Catiline. Catiline left Rome supposedly going into exile as a result of his ill treatment by Cicero and the Senate. Actually Cataline joined an army that was to be the instrument for taking over the government of Rome. Hard evidence was obtained in Rome against five conspirators and they were executed immediately without trial.

Caesar objected to this abrogation of the right of that acused to trials and some acused Caesar of being part of the conspiracy. This was deemed groundless. Caesar elected praetor for the year. Caesar was still Pontifex Maximus. In the Roman religion there was a very sacred ceremony called Bona Dea that was held one a year typically in the house of the Pontifex Maximus. It was a ceremony in which no males could be in attendance. As a prank, the Roman politician Plubius Clodius snuck into the ceremony disguised as a woman.

When he was discovered there was a tremendous public outcry for this act of sacrilege. There was suspicion that somehow Caesar's wife, Pompeia, was to blame. Caesar divorced her, saying "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion. Caesar is appointed governor of Farther Spain Andalusia and Portugal. Before he was allowed to leave Rome his debtors demanded that a wealthy friend of Caesar's, Marcus Licinius Crassus, guarantee a quarter of his debts.

During his governorship a military expedition into the territory lying to northwest of Farther Spain resulted in so much loot that Caesar was able to pay off his debts. Caesar returned to Rome and ran for consul for the next year. Caesar is elected consul despite every effort by the Senate to prevent it. Caesar arranged an alliance of himself, his rich friend Crassus and his old political ally, Pompey. Pompey had carried out at successful military expedition in the east and returned to Italy in 62 BCE.

He wanted to settle his soldiers on land grants but the Senate refused to allow this. The three, Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, became effectively a triumvirate. Prior to the formation of the triumvirate Crassus had been an opponent of Pompey.

Pompey married Caesar's daughter Julia. At that time Caesar remarried. His new wife, Calpurnia, was the daughter of the man who would win the consulship for the next year. As consul Caesar introduced into the Senate a law for the distribution of lands in Italy controlled by the government of Rome. Veterans like those of Pompey's had first call in this distribution. The patrician opposition tried very hard to prevent this law from being implemented but Caesar succeeded despite these efforts.

Pompey's needs were thus taken care of. Caesar's allies in the government arranged for him to become the governor of Cisalpine Gaul. When the designated governor for Transalpine Gaul died this province was given to Caesar as well. His governships were authorized to last from 58 to 54 BCE. Caesar stopped the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii from leaving their homeland in what is now Switzerland and migrating west. His forces also defeated a band of Germans led by Ariovistus.

Caesar's forces subdued Celtic tribes in Brittany and Normandy. Caesar's forces destroyed the Veneti, a Celtic tribe of southern Brittany. Caesar arranged a meeting in Cisalpine Gaul with Pompey and Crassus to settle differences. Caesar was to become a consul in the year Furthermore a successor to Caesar as governor of the two Gauls would not be considered until the beginning of the year 50 BCE.

Caesar's forces anihilated two Germanic tribes which had invaded Gaul. His troops built a bridge across the Rhine and invaded the territory of the Germanic tribes. Caesar took an invasion force across the English Channel to the island of Britain. A serious revolt developed in northeastern Gaul and Caesar's forces defeated it. Caesar's daughter Julia, whom Pompey had married, died. Caesar's forces put another bridge across the Rhine for another invasion of the territory of the Germanic tribes.

Crassus was defeated in a major battle with the Parthian Empire. Caesar spent the winter in Cisalpine Gaul. In Transalpine Gaul were uniting under the leadership of Vercingetorix of Arvernia.

Vercingetorix recognized that his forces would probabily loose any pitched battle against Caesar's forces so he chose to battle the Romans by cutting off their supplies. Caesar's forces attacked Vercingetorix' forces encamped in the city of Gergovia which was a natural fortress.

The Roman attempt of capture Gergovia by storm resulted in failure and great losses for the Romans. Later Vercingetorix and his forces were encamped at another natural fortress at the city of Alesia, northwest of Dijon. The Romans attacked, despite the arrival of Celtic re-enforcements, were successful and captured Vercingetorix in Alesia.

Pompey was elected as the only consul for the year His alliance with Caesar weakened and ended with the two becoming bitter rivals. Caesar's force laid siege to Celtic rebels encamped in a natural fortress at Uxellodunum.

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The Roman's cut off the water supply to Uxellodunum and the rebels surrendered. Caesar then ordered the his soldiers to cut off the hands of the rebels. Caesar wanted to become consul in the year He knew if there was any time period after the end of his governships in which he was simply a Roman citizen his enemies in the Senate would have him arrested and imprisoned. He needed to keep control of an army as governor until he was elected consul and assumed office.

After he and Pompey had become rivals for power Caesar had to make sure that he was never without an army at his command while Pompey had an army at his command. Caesar organized the rule of the territories in Gaul which his forces recently conquered.

The consul for the year 50 obtained passage by the Senate of a resolution that Caesar would relinquish his command of his army without any requirement that Pompey give up his command of his army.

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A tribune and supporter of Caesar then obtained passage of a resolution that the Caesar and Pompey would resign their governorships at the same time. The consul then secretly offered Pompey the command of all troops in Italy.

This would have been independent of Pompey's command as governor. Caesar sent a message to the Senate that he would accept an agreement that he and Pompey relinquish their commands at the same time. He had a choice of giving up the command of his army or ignoring the orders of the Senate.

He decided to ignore the Senate wishes and to take his army into Italy to confront his patrician opposition.

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This meant civil war within the Roman Republic. Caesar's opponents were no match for his generalship. He drove those opponents in Italy out of Italy. One of these was led by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar.

A bit of luck Then Augustus got a lucky break. In 46 BC, Caesar won the civil war and was named dictator of Rome. To secure his position, he needed an heir. With no son of his own, he adopted Augustus. This was a fantastic opportunity for a young man from nowhere.

Almost at once, however, Caesar was dead — murdered by his own advisors. Augustus was just 19, but immediately threw himself into the backstabbing world of Roman politics.

Claiming the throne He formed a strategic alliance with Marc Antony, a successful and ambitious general. Over the next few years, they defeated their enemies in Rome and chased the survivors to Greece, where they finished them off in two of the bloodiest battles in Roman history.

The killing over, the empire was theirs and they divided the spoils. Augustus kept Rome, while Antony took Egypt.

Trouble in Egypt Romans feared that Cleopatra wanted the throne for herself and his relationship with her made Mark Antony a hated man in Rome. His alliance with Augustus disintegrated but, before Antony and Cleopatra could strike Rome, Augustus attacked.