Carbohydrates and their relationship to hiv

HIV and Nutrition - POZ

carbohydrates and their relationship to hiv

If you're HIV-positive, nutrition and HIV is a subject you'll want to pay proteins, carbohydrates, and a little good fat in all meals and snacks. Carbohydrates: A Paradigm for HIV Vaccine Development, Sumit O Bajaj and related articles at Journal of Chemical Biology & Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Furthermore, the high-mannose carbohydrates of HIV and SIV Env bind Susceptibility to HIV infection and progression of AIDS in relation to variant alleles of.

The most popular diets today are high in protein and low in carbohydrates. These diets do work. However, the danger of having a high-protein, and low-carb diet is that when the source of the protein is meat, the meat is usually also high in fat and has higher calories per mouthful than a high-carb diet. One of the reasons that a high-protein, low-carb diet works is that the fat in the food slows down digestion quite a bit, so you feel satisfied with less food.

Another reason for the seeming effectiveness is that high-protein consumption tends to cause loss of body water. If you lose 10 pounds on a high-protein diet, two to three of those pounds may be by dehydration.

Later your body reabsorbs the water and you regain that portion of your weight, making the diet less effective than it seems. But this is not the major criticism of a high-protein, high-fat, and low-carb diet. The big danger is that this diet is conducive to muscle loss and degeneration of muscle tone and efficiency. In a well-balanced diet, the carbs in the meal are used for glucose production, leaving the protein available for muscle repair.

The net result of a high-protein, low-carb diet is that the muscles break down and are not repaired, with a consequent loss of lean body mass. It is possible to lose as much as one pound of muscle for every pound of fat lost on one of these diets. Advertisement Wasting syndromealso referred to as loss of body mass or lean body mass, is an AIDS-related complication and can be life threatening. If this kind of diet produces muscle loss among non-HIV-positive people, there is all the more reason for HIV-positive people to pay attention to a balanced diet.

When there is protein amino acid in excess of the body's requirements for it, it is sent to the liver and converted to fat. This process is called deamination and can be stressful if your body has to do a lot of it.

During the deamination process, the nitrogen that is released from the amino acid is converted into ammonia, which is then changed to urea. Urea is very toxic, but to a lesser extent than ammonia. Researchers have reported that in both children and adults, deficiencies of zinc, selenium, copper, B-6, and B all of which are important for an intact immune response are common in HIV-positive people, even before their immune system becomes damaged.

In people with AIDS, nearly every specific nutrient is deficient. Researchers have also reported that these deficiencies appear to speed disease progression and that replenishing these nutrients including B-6, B, and zinc can actually help boost CD4 T4 cell counts. Many other researchers have reported that deficiencies of glutathione and other important antioxidants including vitamins C and E and the mineral selenium are common. These free radicals serve an important immune purpose but after their mission is carried out, they need to be countered by antioxidant nutrients in order to stop a chain reaction that could otherwise damage the body.

Researchers have shown that oxidative stress is very common in both HIV disease and hepatitis Cand is a factor in progression of both diseases. Keeping optimal levels of antioxidants in the body is crucial to lessen oxidative stress and prevent body damage. The amount of this oxidative damage increases early in HIV disease, and tends to worsen over time.

Carbohydrates: A Paradigm for HIV Vaccine Development

For example, studies have shown that decreased levels of glutathione, the most important antioxidant found in cells, occur within weeks of HIV infection. The lowered levels of glutathione lead to immune cell dysfunction in multiple ways, and allow body cells and tissues to become damaged from the oxidative stress. In fact, researchers have shown that lowered levels of glutathione are strongly tied to an increased risk for disease progression.

Insufficient glutathione also means that the liver is less able to properly break down drugs and other toxins, increasing the potential for liver damage from meds. Thus, boosting glutathione levels is important for anyone living with HIV. How can I improve my nutrition? There are two sources for obtaining the nutrients that can meet all the needs discussed in the previous sections: Thus, any information aimed at improving nutrition in HIV-positive people must begin with a discussion of diet.

Research continues to show us that nutrients about which nothing was known in the recent past may play critical roles in immune function and health preservation. The first step in ensuring the presence of all the nutrients required to meet the needs of those living with HIV is making the most of what you eat. In the simplest terms, this means consuming a wide variety of whole foods—as opposed to processed, nutrient-poor foods—every day, along with plenty of water and the other healthful liquids that your body needs to function at its best.

Instead of struggling to follow complex dietary rules, it is easier for most people to just look at the overall picture and try to always choose healthful foods, while avoiding those that adversely affect health.

So here are some simple guidelines to accomplish that: Certain breads, cereals, rice, and pastas are good carbohydrates that are rich in nutrients and loaded with fiber.

Along with the carbohydrates you get from fruits and vegetables, they can provide a substantial portion of the energy you need every day. Eat a wide variety of vegetables and fruits on a daily basis. Aim for at least three to five servings of vegetables and two to four servings of fruit each day. One serving of vegetables is approximately one cup of raw vegetables or one-half cup of cooked vegetables.

One serving of fruit is approximately one-half cup of fresh chopped or canned fruit.

carbohydrates and their relationship to hiv

Get plenty of protein. Protein is essential for a healthy body and a stronger immune system. You can choose from a wide variety of foods that will contribute to your total protein intake, including lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts, seeds, milk, yogurt, and cheese. The exact amount you need may need to be adjusted, based on individual needs.

Watch intake of fats and sweets. Although a reasonable amount of the good kinds of fats is healthy, keeping the overall fat content of the diet moderately low is important since researchers have shown that a high fat intake can be immunosuppressive, can cause diarrhea in some HIV-positive people, and is tied to an increased risk of progression to cirrhosis in those also living with chronic hepatitis C. For those with taking HIV medications causing elevated blood fats, a high-fat diet could also be risky to cardiovascular health.

They contain few nutrients and are often used as substitutes for more healthful foods that should be eaten. Lowering your intake of sweets and white-flour snack foods will likely improve your intake of healthy nutrients, help keep triglyceride levels in check, and maintain cardiovascular health.

Remember variety and color. Each food has its particular strengths and weaknesses in terms of nutrient content so choosing from a wide variety of foods at each pyramid level will help ensure intake of all the nutrients nature can provide, rather than the more limited number that might result from repeating the same foods over and over.

carbohydrates and their relationship to hiv

And emphasizing color when you select that wide variety of foods is nutritional insurance. Call it the Rainbow Theory of Shopping. The more your shopping basket looks like a rainbow of color, the better off your diet will be. Should my diet be adjusted for my individual needs? One of the possible modifications is the amount of food that will be required to meet your calorie needs.

Muscle-Wasting Effects of Low-Carb Diets on People With HIV - Living Well With HIV -

Because both individual metabolism—the rate at which your body is using energy at the cellular level—and lifestyle can significantly affect calorie requirements, it is always difficult to make generic recommendations on how many calories someone needs every day.

You may have an innately higher than normal rate of metabolism, an energy-demanding job as a construction worker, or an intensive daily exercise schedule, all of which serve to increase your calorie needs. Here are some examples of why you should adjust your diet: The need for additional calories: Regardless of these individual variants, the total intake of food that you need daily is somewhat increased by a chronic viral infection like HIV since the energy demanded by an ongoing immune response to the virus is constantly burning up calories.

In addition, any other infections—including not only opportunistic infections, but any others that you might develop—will further increase this need for additional calories. Weighing yourself regularly and keeping a weight diary can be very useful for ensuring that your daily food intake is sufficient to maintain your body.

Asking your physician to do a bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA regularly will also help keep track of your body status. This simple test provides information on your body percentages of fat, muscle, and water. Tracked over time, it can give clear indications of unhealthy changes Dealing with lactose intolerance: It is quite common for HIV-positive people, especially those with more advanced disease, to develop lactose intolerance—an inability to properly digest the milk sugar lactose that results in gas or diarrhea when dairy products are consumed.

The severity of this problem is highly variable, with some people unable to tolerate even small amounts of dairy products, while others would react badly to large amounts but could easily consume moderate amounts every day without any problems.

When the problem does occur, reduction or elimination of milk and the many products made from it cheese, ice cream, yogurt, etc. Fat malabsorption, a possible cause of diarrhea and gas, is also common in HIV disease. Researchers have reported that around one-quarter of people in early disease stages have already developed fat malabsorption, and that by later disease stages, this problem may occur in more than half of all HIV-positive people.

Thus, many people may find it necessary to keep the fat content of their diet moderately low. HIV drugs and dietary requirements: Some of the HIV drug regimens require certain dietary adjustments. Certain dietary changes may be needed in those with any significant level of liver damage.

For example, for some people with advanced liver disease, most commonly due to coinfection with hepatitis virus esthe protein content of the diet may need to be reduced. Since, for all the reasons discussed below, adequate protein is so important, some people jump to the conclusion that more is better.

Unfortunately, with serious liver disease, a too-high level of protein may be dangerous. When protein is broken down in the body, one of the byproducts is ammonia.

A damaged liver cannot process ammonia as well as a healthy liver can. The result can be an overload that results in encephalopathy, a brain condition that can result in a state of mental confusion and, in advanced stages, a coma.

Another diet change that may be very important for some people with liver disease is salt reduction. In people who have developed ascites, a complication of cirrhosis damage to the liver that results in an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, too much salt intake can worsen the problem.

It may also be important to limit iron intake, since diets higher in iron have been tied to liver damage in those with hepatitis C. Drinking plenty of good liquids is just as critical as eating well. Your diet must include plenty of water. The old adage about drinking eight large glasses of water per day approximately two quarts is actually a good beginning.