Debunking the myths of Mao Zedong | South China Morning Post
Profiles of Chinese leaders from Mao Zedong to Xi Jinping. Home Quizzes News Diary Updates. Culture. Festivals Customs Religion . However good relations with Russia collapsed in ➚ in the Sino-Soviet split. Mao's vision of . In Europe he met Deng Xiaoping and other major figures of the later PRC. He married. because the relationship between the long-run imperceptible processes and the .. Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping on the Chinese Condition which contained 88 articles, 64 never had the opportunity to test out other personal identities. Undeniably, both Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping made significant relations strategies were less geared towards survival and security as Deng presided over the nuclear tests in May , and will continue to have its impact on China's.
A victim of Mao's crawl back to power Liu died in poor conditions after imprisonment on trumped up charges after being Chairman effectively President of China for nine years. A native, like Mao, of Hunan province Liu Shaoqi studied at Moscow in when Russia was still full of revolutionary fervor. In aged 22 he returned to China and immediately set about stirring up revolution.
By he was Communist party secretary for the whole of the province of Fujian. In the Civil Warhe joined the Long March as far as Zunyi and then moved on to organize resistance in urban centers.
In he joined Mao at Yan'an and became the chief military commander in northern China at the end of the War with Japan. He married five times and had eight children; one son, Liu Yang became an army general. In Mao Zedong stepped aside for his chosen successor Liu who then became Chairman until Liu together with Deng Xiaoping criticized the Great Leap Forward in and further criticism of Mao's harsh policies followed.
For a while Mao and Liu contended for power, Mao had, significantly, retained the important post as head of Military. It was the unleashing of Mao's Cultural Revolution that precipitated to Liu's rapid downfall. Liu was arrested as the number one 'capitalist roader' in He was regularly beaten and denied his medication and died in in utter squalor in Kaifeng.
His death and burial was kept secret for ten years. Deng Xiaoping on assuming power in soon reversed the status of Liu, praising him as a hard-working and true hero of the Communist revolution. His family served as local government officials.
Mao Zedong vs. Deng Xiaoping by Joelle Cianciosa on Prezi
He was adopted by his uncle and brought up by his aunt on the uncle's death. When she in turn died Zhou Enlai was only ten years old, he moved back home briefly before moving to live with another uncle who was working as an official at Shenyang, Liaoning and then Tianjin. His school was a modern one, teaching science and English and Zhou did well.
With school support he moved to Japan in for two years, but he failed to get a place at a Japanese university. On his return to Nankai school which by then had become a University his studies turned more to politics and the exciting developments in Russia. His communist activities got him expelled and he decided to leave for Europe on 7 November to learn more of the social upheavals taking place there.
He married Deng Yingchao inthey remained childless but adopted several children orphaned in the troubles that were to follow, including Li Peng who later became Premier of China Nearly killed by the Nationalists when the Communist-Nationalist alliance broke into armed conflict, Zhou fled to Moscow. He returned in to mount a communist underground movement. The future of China Modern History An in-depth overview of the position of China in the world and its likely development in the future.
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Read more… Zhou's skills were chiefly in negotiation and diplomacy. When the communists kidnapped Chiang Kaishek in it was Zhou that negotiated a united front with the Nationalists rather than bowing to hard-line pressure to have him killed.
He tried to maintain friendly relations with the Nationalists based at Chongqing. When he gave up and moved to Mao's base at Yan'an he had to apologize for his supposed past mistakes in dealing with Chiang. He took part in negotiations with the Nationalists after the fall of Japan at Nanjing but ultimately Civil War could not be averted. The Great Leap Forward with its disastrous outcome has to be pinned on Zhou as a major architect. In the Cultural Revolution he tried to defend Liu Shaoqi from Mao's harsh treatment but failed, rather than risk expulsion and death, Zhou again followed the Mao line.
Mao's support turned from him to Lin Biaoand it was only after the still mysterious death of Lin Biao in that Zhou's power grew again. He tried to ease the worst excesses of the Cultural Revolution and this led to disputes with Mao up until his death in He was always active in foreign relations, and instrumental in setting up the historic Nixon-Mao meeting in The huge outpouring of grief at Zhou's funeral demonstrated massive support for his political ethos.
Deng Xiaoping gave the eulogy rather than Mao showing the deep divisions at the top of the party.Biography of Deng Xiaoping Part 1 - Most powerful communist leader and reformer of Chinese economy
The small group of mourners that remained were arrested and sent to labor camps. The widespread criticism of the Gang of Four did not go unmarked. It was not untilwhen Deng Xiaoping assumed power, that Zhou's legacy and achievements were officially acknowledged. Paramount Leader - Hua Guofeng was the Chinese leader during the transitional time between Mao Zedong 's death in and Deng Xiaoping 's rise to power in After serving 12 years under Marshall Zhu De in the Army he moved to take a Communist party role in Hua's competent implementation of the Cultural Revolution in Hunan province gained him Mao 's respect.
In the early s he rose to national power becoming a member of the Politburo and Vice Premier in under Zhou Enlai.
After Zhou Enlai 's death Hua became acting Premier. When Deng fell from grace, Mao made him the official Premier. Mao saw him as a loyal supporter who would continue his vision; Mao is believed to have said 'With you in charge, I am at ease'. When Mao died later in the Gang of Four sought to maintain their positions of power.
It was Hua who arrested them and took on the top military and party roles. As Chairman of the People's Republic Hua stopped the worst excesses of the Cultural Revolution and sought reform using the model of a centralized Soviet style planned economy.
His plans proved overly ambitious; he was opposed by Deng Xiaoping and by Deng had won the argument within the party and the PLA. Deng and his supporters did not want to follow Mao's Thought in every way and condemned the Cultural RevolutionDeng had his own vision particularly with regard to market reform. However Hua repudiated his policies after his fall from power. Unlike the sad fate of his predecessor Liu Shaoqionly 12 years before, Hua continued in politics, remaining on the Central Committee until He had one wife and four children.
History will probably judge him as a minor figure who acted as caretaker leader between the more influential figures of Mao and Deng.
His great achievement was to prevent the Gang of Four seizing power on Mao's death and lurching China into more chaos. Paramount Leader - Deng Xiaoping's legacy in China is huge. His strategy of softening and widening the strict Communist message is seen as crucial to China's economic revival in the last 30 years.
A key period in Deng's life was spent in France in the s where Chinese men had been used for quasi-military roles in the first World War.
Aged just 16, Deng arrived in France in Decemberwhere he worked in a steel plant on the outskirts of Paris.
It was in France that he met Zhou Enlai and other revolutionaries seeking to learn more about the West. While working on trains, in kitchens and in factories his spare time was spent studying western thought and science.
He took to the game of bridge and gradually became involved in Communist party activities. The authorities eventually caught up with him, so in he fled to Moscow to avoid arrest. After a year learning about Russian Communism he returned to China a committed communist with news of amazing political and technological developments in Europe. In he first met Mao Zedong at the Jiangxi Soviet.
He took a full and well regarded part in the military campaigns against the Japanese and Nationalists and became Vice Premier to Zhou Enlai in But Deng suffered during Mao's comeback during the Cultural Revolution in He was forced to publicly criticize his failings, and went back to work in a steelworks.
People began to show their support for Deng by displaying small glass bottles — his given name means 'little bottle'. His friend Zhou Enlai helped save Deng from the fate that befell Liu Shaoqi and after the Nixon visit in he was back in power. His rise faltered when Zhou died in preventing him from becoming Mao's successor. On Deng's return to power in he took China on a new route, after the unsuccessful attempt to transform China into a Marxist state.
He was the first to openly attack Mao's legacy and firmly steer China in a more market driven direction.
A convenient way to think of his leadership is that if Mao behaved like God, Deng behaved like an Emperor. We regularly post interesting stories about China or anything China related - often not seen on other web sites. We tend to stay clear of politics and concentrate on the cultural side. We'll also let you know of new pages and features on this web site.
We normally only post every few days so, don't worry, it won't fill up your news feed. China was no longer isolated and could begin to trade on international markets.
Follow the Leader: Xi Jinping vs Deng Xiaoping - BBC News
He became the acceptable face of Chinese Communism, pragmatic rather than dogmatic. In other words, following Marxist-Leninist theory is only one means to achieve an end, improving the lot of ordinary Chinese people is the only important end result.
His reforms targeted the discredited Commune system and poor industrial infrastructure. Support for small scale capitalism was introduced. It became no longer a 'crime' to try to better the situation for one's own family rather than the community as a whole. He reformed the education system so that students were credited for academic achievement rather than revolutionary fervor. Deng separated his private and public life, he married three times and had five children. He loved football soccer and French food.
His leadership style was decisive but within a small ruling group and not presidential. Any tendency to form a personality cult, such as Mao enjoyed, was suppressed. Although Deng took a back seat he made it clear that the suppression of the demonstration was the correct course.
He seems to have seen it as a destabilizing movement with a strong echo of the Cultural Revolution that caused China, and Deng personally, such misery. Deng held firm loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party as the unified, strong stabilizing force it has remained. He joined the Communist Party when only 14, he proved a loyal supporter of fellow Hunanese Mao Zedong in the s and took part in the Long March from Jiangxi to Shaanxi.
Along with Deng Xiaoping he suffered in the Cultural Revolution when he was given hard labor including breaking rocks.
On Mao's death and Deng's rehabilitation he rose to power to become General Secretary and effective leader of the Party. His abandonment of Mao's philosophy went further than Deng.
He encouraged and adopted some Western practices. He openly questioned Marxist ideology and sought to extend accountability of the leadership. While Deng was paramount leader Hu remained his 'left hand', he rehabilitated many people who had been criticized under the Cultural Revolution. By the mid s Hu became critical of Deng himself and upset many senior figures by instigating anti-corruption investigations. It was the widespread student protests in demanding Western style reforms that led to Hu Yaobang's downfall.
The elder, senior members were increasingly unhappy with Hu's apparent acceptance of the demonstrator's rights to protest and also the high speed of economic reform. Deng Xiaoping stepped in and removed him from the office of President although he remained as a member of the ruling SCP.
His death on 15th April from heart failure sparked the student protests in Tiananmen Square which were brutally suppressed by Deng. It was not until that he was rehabilitated as a great Chinese leader. He is now remembered as the leading reformer of his generation. Paramount Leader - Jiang Zemin remains an influential figure in Chinese politics from the time he was President and Paramount Leader He represents the head of the third generation of leaders after the formation of the People's Republic and the first not to come from a military background.
Jiang was born in Yangzhou, Jiangsu province and was too young to take part in the war against Japanese occupation. In he studied electrical engineering at Shanghai University, he then went to Moscow in the s and worked at a car factory. On return to China he gradually rose through the ranks of the communist party and in became Minister for Electronic industries.
He was made mayor of Shanghai, an important position in a rapidly growing city. This appointment gave him prominence at a National level.
Fri 21st Dec Yan'an is an increasingly popular tour destination With the burgeoning economy and the desire of many to get rich quickly, it is perhaps surprising that the important sites of the emergence of the Communist Party in China are receiving more tourists. As Thomas Carlyle said, "The history of the world is but biography of great men".
To misjudge them is to misjudge history and risk misguiding the future. Mao Zedong, whose life left indelible marks on the lives of more than a billion people and changed the trajectory of the world, is to be studied with care and thoughtfulness, not to be judged with moral expediency. Eric X Li is a venture capitalist and political scientist in Shanghai How to deal with Mao Zedong's legacy has posed challenges to his successors.
- Leaders of the People's Republic of China
- Debunking the myths of Mao Zedong
- China under Deng Xiaoping’s leadership
Mao's appointed successor, Hua Guofeng, simply wanted to follow whatever he said. Luckily Deng Xiaoping put that to an end and introduced reforms and opening up. Infive years after Mao's death and the end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng pronounced that Mao was 70 per cent right and 30 per cent wrong. Beyond this official verdict, the Communist Party has never issued a careful and detailed assessment of him.
Mao went quiet for a while. Then inone year before his th birthday anniversary, a book entitled Mao Zedong: Man, not God became a best-seller.
A recollection of Mao's personal guard Li Yinqiao, it humanises him in some ways as we would have never associated our great leader with a man who liked to eat braised fatty pork or who suffered from constipation. And he even burst into tears when Li had to leave Beijing to take up a new post. I remember such details vividly. Though a few odd leftists talked about him fondly, the vast majority of Westerners I interviewed basically saw him as a mass murderer who was responsible for more than 30 million people's death.
Not surprisingly, my book failed to pass the Chinese censorship. Today Mao's legacy divides the nation. Liberal economist Mao Yushi not related has repeatedly written articles harshly criticising Mao and made calls to judge him as a man not a god. Still I would say that people who look at Mao critically are in the minority.
According to online reports, a Sina survey had found that some 82 per cent of Chinese viewed Mao mostly favourably. For many, he was the man who drove away the imperial powers and made the Chinese people "stand up" in the world. Every day, thousands of people queue up to see his embalmed body inside the Mao mausoleum in Tiananmen; a lot of taxi and truck drivers as well as many rural households still hang Mao's pictures, out of respect or the need for a lucky charm.
Follow the Leader: Xi Jinping vs Deng Xiaoping
Many of his admirers, the young in particular, don't know the whole truth about him, something they can't learn at school or from books on the mainland. Others chose not to know the negative stories about him. Mao has come to represent a national hero who would stand up to foreign aggression.
Whenever there's a wave of anti-Western sentiments, Mao searches pop up on the internet. For example, during the Nato bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade insome were saying: There's also a kind of deeply-rooted emperor worship here. In springI interviewed Wu Hanjin, the party secretary of Gushui village, perched in Loess plateau of Shaanxi province.
He built a temple in honour of Mao because "Chairman Mao was the best emperor China ever produced". Our new leader Xi Jinping, though not a Maoist, likes to borrow some Maoist-style rhetoric while following the path paved by Deng Xiaoping. On the one hand, the party needs Mao, China's founding father, as a source for its legitimacy; on the other hand, it doesn't want him to become a hurdle to reforms.
Since Mao and the Communist Party are inextricably connected, it's hard to imagine that the current leadership would allow an objective and thorough reassessment of the man. To "discredit Comrade Mao Zedong would mean to discredit our party and the state", as Deng pointed out. In January, Xi issued the so-called two no-denials - not to deny what was done before the reforms based on what happened after it and vice versa. But this conservative approach will not solve the dilemma of Mao's legacy.
Personally, I think this is counterproductive. The right thing but the hard thing to do is to allow an open debate to show what kind of man Mao really was. He might have cried for losing a trusted guard but this can't conceal the fact that he had no regard for human life. When millions were dying in the early s, he exported grain abroad, partly to show that socialist China was thriving. Most importantly, we must learn from the mistakes of Mao.
With his god-like status, he was able to launch his ridiculous political campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward where he fantasised about "overtaking Britain and catching up with America" or his Cultural Revolution where he wanted to overthrow the so-called revisionists that existed only in his muddled mind.
These blunders were as much his as the undemocratic system's.