Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
Only after Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' other writings had made are busily building market economies in defiance of everything Marx . How has capitalism altered the relationship between cities and the countryside?. Karl Marx (–83) was born in Germany into an assimilated Jewish family. new industrial society and the unequal relationships between its different social classes. to all the vicissitudes of competition, to all the fluctuations of the market . In the Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels comment that . in the labour market, Marx shows how it is an exploitative social relationship.
But it does not occur to anyone to think that by means of the exchange of his revenue for such services, i.
Rather, he thereby spends the fruits of his capital. It does not change the nature of the relation that the proportions in which revenue is exchanged for this kind of living labour are themselves determined by the general laws of production.
Marx, The Grundrisse For example, when the peasant takes a wandering tailor, of the kind that existed in times past, into his house, and gives him the material to make clothes with. The man who takes the cloth I supplied to him and makes me an article of clothing out of it gives me a use value. But instead of giving it directly in objective form, he gives it in the form of activity. I give him a completed use value; he completes another for me. The difference between previous, objectified labour and living, present labour here appears as a merely formal difference between the different tenses of labour, at one time in the perfect and at another in the present.
Marx, The Grundrisse The separation of public works from the state, and their migration into the domain of the works undertaken by capital itself, indicates the degree to which the real community has constituted itself in the form of capital. Marx, The Grundrisse In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production.
Relations of production
The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general.
It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness. Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy In studying such transformations it is always necessary to distinguish between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, artistic or philosophic — in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.
Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed, and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society.
Mankind thus inevitably sets itself only such tasks as it is able to solve, since closer examination will always show that the problem itself arises only when the material conditions for its solution are already present or at least in the course of formation.
Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy There is in every social formation a particular branch of production which determines the position and importance of all the others, and the relations obtaining in this branch accordingly determine the relations of all other branches as well. It is as though light of a particular hue were cast upon everything, tingeing all other colours and modifying their specific features.
By party, I meant the party in the broad historical sense. Marx, Letter to Freiligrath, 29 February A philosopher produces ideas, a poet poems, a clergyman sermons, a professor compendia and so on. A criminal produces crimes.
If we take a closer look at the connection between this latter branch of production and society as a whole, we shall rid ourselves of many prejudices.
Marx, Theories of Surplus Value All economists share the error of examining surplus-value not as such, in its pure form, but in the particular forms of profit and rent. I cannot go to Geneva. I consider that what I am doing through this work is far more important for the working class than anything I might be able to do personally at any Congress.
Marx, Letter to Kugelmann The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as "an immense accumulation of commodities," its unit being a single commodity. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.
Relations of production - Wikipedia
The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or — this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms — with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution.
The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. Proudhon, holding this upside down like a true philosopher, sees in actual relations nothing but the incarnation of the principles, of these categories, which were slumbering — so M. Proudhon the economist understands very well that men make cloth, linen, or silk materials in definite relations of production. But what he has not understood is that these definite social relations are just as much produced by men as linen, flax, etc.
Social relations are closely bound up with productive forces. In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations. The hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steam-mill society with the industrial capitalist. The same men who establish their social relations in conformity with the material productivity, produce also principles, ideas, and categories, in conformity with their social relations.
Thus the ideas, these categories, are as little eternal as the relations they express. They are historical and transitory products. The production relations of every society form a whole. The latter is as much a production process of material conditions of human life as a process taking place under specific historical and economic production relations, producing and reproducing these production relations themselves, and thereby also the bearers of this process, their material conditions of existence and their mutual relations, i.
For the aggregate of these relations, in which the agents of this production stand with respect to Nature and to one another, and in which they produce, is precisely society, considered from the standpoint of its economic structure. Like all its predecessors, the capitalist process of production proceeds under definite material conditions, which are, however, simultaneously the bearers of definite social relations entered into by individuals in the process of reproducing their life.
Those conditions, like these relations, are on the one hand prerequisites, on the other hand results and creations of the capitalist process of production; they are produced and reproduced by it. Wakefield discovered that in the Colonies, property in money, means of subsistence, machines, and other means of production, does not as yet stamp a man as a capitalist if there be wanting the correlative — the wage-worker, the other man who is compelled to sell himself of his own free-will.
He discovered that capital is not a thing, but a social relation between persons, established by the instrumentality of things. Peel had the foresight to bring with him, besides, 3, persons of the working-class, men, women, and children. Peel was left without a servant to make his bed or fetch him water from the river. Peel, who provided for everything except the export of English modes of production to Swan River! The servants therefore could leave Mr. Peel in order to find work or occupy free land to make a better living.
A social relation can be defined, in the first instance, as a relation between individuals insofar as they belong to a group, or a relation between groups, or a relation between an individual and a group The group could be an ethnic or kinship group, a social institution or organisationa social classa nation or gender etc.
A social relation is therefore not simply identical with an interpersonal relation or an individual relation, although all these types of relations presuppose each other. A social relation refers to a common social characteristic of a group of people.
Society for Marx is the sum total of social relations connecting its members. The totality of social relations of production constitute the social structure of the economy, which according to Marx determine how incomes, products and assets will be distributed.
Karl Marx contrasts the social relations of production with the technical relations of production; in the former case, it is people subjects who are related, in the latter case, the relation is between people and objects in the physical world they inhabit those objects are, in the context of production, what Marx calls the "means of labor" or means of production.
However, Marx argues that with the rise of market economythis distinction is increasingly obscured and distorted. Marx says this leads to the reification thingification or Verdinglichung of economic relations, of which commodity fetishism is a prime example.
The community of men, or the manifestation of the nature of men, their mutual complementing the result of which is species-life, truly human life - this community is conceived by political economy in the form of exchange and trade. Society, says Destutt de Tracyis a series of mutual exchanges. It is precisely this process of mutual integration. Society, says Adam Smith, is a commercial society. Each of its members is a merchant.
It is seen that political economy defines the estranged form of social intercourse as the essential and original form corresponding to man's nature. People will buy and sell goods without really knowing where they originated or who made them. They know that objectively they depend on producers and consumers somewhere else, that this social dependency exists, but they do not know who specifically those people are or what their activities are.