female students differ in their perceptions of communication skill and nature of student-teacher relationships are important to effective learning outcomes. Student-Teacher Relationships – A Source of Teachers' Daily Emotions .. Eighty-three female elementary classroom teachers from first to fourth .. a high ability to distance from others (Kieschke and Schaarschmidt, ). way male teachers assess their relationship with female pupils. Low-quality, conflictual student-teacher relationships may compromise the ability of teachers.
In contrast, overall more distant relationships with students might be associated with highest levels of burnout Hargreaves, Incongruent or discrepant relationship experiences with students reflected in a wide range of relational closeness, might lead to feelings of incompetence, being unable to satisfy their needs and demands as a teacher and thus is perceived as goal incongruent and negative in their valence.
Motive incongruence has, for example, been shown to decrease positive valence and affective commitment Shanock et al. All in all it is suggested that discrepant or incongruent relationship experiences with students might have a negative effect but thus far it seems to be rather exploratory. This relationship range was captured by assessing the STRS for the most and the least attached students in their classroom.
Importance of Relationship Closeness and Attachment Security The primary attachment experiences of teachers such as with their mother might shape the process of how relational closeness toward students is experienced. This may be because secure adults have internalized that significant others react promptly, effectively and reliably to the individual needs and thus they are experts on how to use relationships and support effectively and positively Collins and Feeney, ; Mikulincer et al.
In contrast, individuals with insecure or anxious strategies have internalized that the partner reacts insufficiently to their support request which increases insecurity and anxiety as well as fear of rejection. Thus, anxious attachment in combination with a low quality relationship with the most attached student might lead to more negative emotional experiences and thus might increases the risk of suffering from emotional ill-being Horppu and Ikonen-Varila, ; Spilt et al.
On the contrary, secure individuals with a high quality relationship toward the most attached student might profit most regarding their wellbeing. Similarly to prior considerations about incongruent relational experiences, a negative effect on wellbeing can be assumed based on findings of motive-incongruence Shanock et al. As far as we know, there is only one study providing evidence that pre-service teachers who experienced harsh Parental Discipline, an indicator in the Attachment History Questionnaire, were more likely to experience decreased relationship closeness toward students Kesner, In order to address the proposed research questions of how the relationship range with students as well as how the most significant student combined with attachment security impacts teachers wellbeing, some methodological considerations of how to investigate the combined effect of two predictors on a third outcome variable needs to be addressed.
Thus, in the following section, response surface analysis RSA is introduced as a powerful and statistical elaborated way to investigate the combined effect of two predictor variables on an outcome Edwards, Testing for Combined Effects of Attachment: Response Surface Analysis RSA Difference scores as predictors reflecting congruence or discrepancy are of limited use because no effects of how each predictor contributes to the outcome can be estimated and thus researchers cannot derive whether one predictor is more important than the other.
Moreover, the level of the predictors, such as extent of closeness of the most and least attached student, which is assumed to affect the outcome, cannot be considered. Thus, no so called mean level effect can be estimated. Another problematic issue is that scale equivalence of the two predictors is often not met or not possible to obtain. As a consequence, effect interpretation of difference scores is ambiguous and the possible research questions which can be addressed are restricted.
A huge disadvantage of moderated regression analysis is that no effect of how the discrepancy of two predictors affects the outcome can be estimated, e.
The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students' Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis
Furthermore, only linear relationships between outcome and predictors are tested and not quadratic effects Shanock et al. All those limitations of difference scores and regression models can be overcome when using RSAs. By applying RSA models, researchers can overcome difficulties with traditional approaches such as using absolute or quadratic difference scores of the two predictors and by applying moderated regression models Edwards, ; Shanock et al.
Teacher support includes three dimensions: Support for autonomy is teacher provision of choice, relevance, or respect to students. Structure is clarity of expectations and contingencies. Involvement is warmth, affection, dedication of resources, understanding the student, or dependability Skinner et al.
Research applying this definition of teacher support has found that it can influence anxiety, depression, hope, and other emotions among students Reddy et al. In the social support model, teacher support can be viewed in two ways: The broad perspective, based on Tardy's social support framework, defines teacher support as a teacher giving informational, instrumental, emotional, or appraisal support to a student, in any environment Tardy, ; Kerres Malecki and Kilpatrick Demary, Informational support is giving advice or information in a particular content area.
Instrumental support is giving resources such as money or time. Emotional support is love, trust, or empathy. Appraisal support is giving evaluative feedback to each student Malecki and Elliott, The narrow perspective views teacher support in the form of help, trust, friendship, and interest only in a classroom environment Fraser, ; Aldridge et al.
Teacher support enhances a teacher's relationship with a student. Specifically, teachers who support students show their care and concern for their students, so these students often reciprocate this concern and respect for the teacher by adhering to classroom norms Chiu and Chow, ; Longobardi et al. When teachers shout at students, blame them, or aggressively discipline them, these students often show less concern for their teachers and fewer cooperative classroom behaviors Miller et al.
As might be expected from this variation and diffuseness in definitions of teacher support, none of them specify a direct relationship between teacher support and students' academic emotions, making it difficult to determine the salient levers for intervention and support.
The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students' Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis
Therefore, we conduct a meta-analysis to integrate these diverse frameworks and streamline the knowledge base, thereby promoting the development of this field. Academic emotions Academic emotions refer to the emotional experience of learning and teachingincluding enjoyment, hopelessness, boredom, anxiety, and anger Pekrun et al. Researchers have generally divided academic emotions into two categories: According to Pekrun et al.
Based on the literature, the current study define PAEs as including interest, hope, enjoyment, pride, calmness, contentment, and relief; and NAEs as including shame, anxiety, anger, worry, boredom, depression, fatigue, and hopelessness. The relationship between teacher support and students' academic emotions Many empirical studies have shown that students with more teacher support have higher PAEs or lower NAEs.
Specifically, students with more teacher support have more enjoyment, interest, hope, pride, or relief PAEs ; or less anxiety, depression, shame, anger, worry, boredom, or hopelessness NAEs Ahmed et al. As the effect sizes differ substantially among these studies Skinner et al. However, these studies only partly verified the underlying phenomena, as some studies had limitations such as convenience sampling or ignoring sample size —resulting in low reliability and reducing the quality of the research.
Therefore, to determine clearly the link between teacher support and students' academic emotions, a meta-analysis is needed. Through a review of past empirical research on teacher support and students' academic emotions, we found that many effect sizes were heterogeneous, suggesting that moderators might account for these differences.
Specifically, we examined the potential moderating roles of students' cultures, ages, and genders. Potential moderators of the link between teacher support and students' academic emotions Culture Several studies have implied that culture may influence the association between teacher support and students' academic emotions. For example, Karagiannidis et al. In contrast, King et al.