Relationship satisfaction instability and depression.
In terms of mental health, depression and marital satisfaction had the .. mediates the association between marital instability and depression. Although a large literature links relationship discord with depression, most prior studies have Prospective effects of marital satisfaction on depressive symptoms in established A theory of marital dissolution and stability. Thus, concurrent asso- ciations between relationship satisfaction and both to Depression In accord with models of depression–relationship dysfunction Notably, instability in relationship satisfaction accounted for unique variance in.
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Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20, Marital satisfaction and an information-processing measure of partner-schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, Mood reactivity to marital conflict: The influence of marital dissatisfaction and depression. Mothers are often thought of as primary care-takers of the family, fathers are the providers.
It is quite common to believe that mothers are more emotionally involved with their children and more emotionally available to them. They consciously separate their roles as mothers and wives, and therefore the independence between roles takes place.
When men feel dissatisfied and unstable in their marriage, they may concentrate their energy on the outside of their family, on their friends and society and abandon their role as providers. When man withdraws from a unstable marriage, he withdraws from the mother and the child at the same time, his role as a father is greatly affected by the level of marital satisfaction. Men are also more likely to express an unusual overt behavior such as being aggressive, angry, argumentative, unaffectionate and withdrawn.
Women on the other hand, will tend to be more internally hurt, more likely to have depression. Thus, for a child it is easier to identify their father's over behavior and be disturbed by it, rather that their mothers depressive symptoms, such as being sad and crying.
The study mentioned above, also leads to a theory that depressed children are more likely to live with depressed parents. In single parent families the stress is always present because of the family situation.
One parent performs dual roles for the child and that is stressful for both of them. The single mother is a provider for the family and also a care-taker. But the first role is of primary concern because that rile was not her role originally, that is why the mother has to work harder at it. At that time the second role of the mother as a care-taker is partially abandon because of the lack of time left to spend with a child.
The mother may express overt changes in behavior, such as anger and frustration, to show hew feelings of helplessness. In this case the child can sense the depression and unhappiness of the mother because there is no father figure to be more influential than the mother.
Once the depression disorder is diagnosed there are several ways to approach the treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy is one therapy most used for treating depression. Treatment consists of identifying copying strategies for kids and their parents.
The therapist helps kids to identify cognitive distortions. Beck'scognitive theory suggests that depressed children's negative self-perceptions reflect cognitive distortions about the self and about the environment. Beck and his colleagues initially developed cognitive therapy as treatment for depression. Cognitive behavioral treatment or CBT of depression involves the application of specific strategies directed at the following three domains: In the cognitive domain, patients are taught to correct their negative thinking.
In behavioral domain, patients learn activity scheduling, social skills and assertiveness. In physiological domain patients are taught relaxation techniques, meditation and pleasant imagery to calm themselves. Numerous studies conducted showed that cognitive therapy was more effective that tricyclic antidepressant therapy McGinn, Numerous studies have shown the importance and effectiveness of family intervention, family participation in the treatment, parents' demonstration of positive control over the child, and lower stress level within the family.
First, among children with depression, greater family stress has been found to be associated with a longer initial episode and lower social competence at 3-year follow up. Second, depressed children whose homes were characterized by high levels of parental criticism or emotional overinvolvement demonstrated significantly lower recovery rates at the end of the first year after hospitalization than did children whose parents scored low on those variables.
Third, during depressive episodes, children demonstrate more negative and guilt-inducing behavior in laboratory-based family interactional tasks when compared to nondepressed psychiatric and control participants, underscoring the high level of stress experienced by families of depressed children.
Fourth, maternal and child depressive symptoms may be temporarily linked such that symptoms in one member of the dyad potentiate symptoms in the other. Fifth, although studies of depressed adults indicate strong family histories of depression in the first degree relatives, familial loading appears to be even more substantial in children and adolescents with major depression.
Parental depression, conflict in the family, criticism of a child, dysfunction, family stress contribute to child depression which in turn also fuels family stress and dysfunction. A therapist works with both the parents and the child to identify the negative thoughts and behaviors influencing depression of both and tries to turn those into a positive influence to correct the disorders. There is emerging support for the value of psychoeducational family programs.
The sessions are taught by the professionals in the field of depression greatly increase awareness and knowledge of parents in the area of child depression. The parents are taught to identify the symptoms, how to approach a depressed child, how to help him, information about mood disorders, interpersonal skills, stress reduction, medication and medication side effects. The effect of various stressor in a child's life is also examined in the context of different environments such as school, home, community.
Participants of the programs get to meet other parents and their children to discuss common issues such as symptoms, social skills, approaches to accepting depression disorder.
Other therapeutic strategies include a non blaming reforming of the goals of treatment from a focus on the child's symptoms to a focus on the quality of parent-child relationships, building alliances between the therapist and both parents and child, promoting attachment between the parents and the child, and competencies within the child.
Use of different antidepressants such as clomipramine, tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, desipramine, notriptylineselective serotonin inhibitors Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro showed a reduction in depression for certain children. In the study exploring the effectiveness of antidepressants in treating depression it was found that fluoxetine was superior to a placebo in the acute phase of major depressive disorder in child and adolescent outpatients with severe, persistent depression.
After 5 week follow up with the outpatients the superiority of fluoxetine was not seen. The findings suggest that there are no an effective antidepressant to treat depression successfully.
Different depressed children respond differently to various antidepressants and some may get better and some may not. Ultimately, depression is a prevalent mental disorder in children and adolescents that requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment plan to prevent its persistence or reoccurrence into adulthood. In children and adolescents, the recurrence rate of depressive episodes first occurring in childhood or adolescence is 70 percent by five years, which is similar to the recurrence rate in adults.
Young people experiencing a moderate to severe depression may be more likely to have a manic episode in their adulthood Hazel, Bottom line is that children with symptoms of depression are likely to develop depression in the adulthood if not treated, than children without the symptoms. Prevention of Depression in Children According to the models of depression, the same skills that would reduce depression could be used to inoculate children against it.
Prevention of depression includes early detection of the symptoms and immediate treatment. One of the studies done by Jaycox, Reivich, Gillham and Seligman in on the children at risk for depression by virtue of subthreshold depressive symptoms or a high degree of family conflict at home.
Another approach to prevent depression in children was tested by Beardslee inwho identified the children at high risk for depression as having a parent with a serious mood disorder. The psychoeducational session was attended by the parent and the child and was aimed on helping parents to convey to their children an understanding of the parent's mood disorder, and assisting the child in identifying questions and concerns for the parent to address Beardslee, Gladstone, Wright, Cooper, Conclusion In the past 20 years our knowledge and awareness of the depression in children have greatly increased.
Major advances have been achieved in knowledge regarding the phenomenology, correlates, etiology, and psychosocial factors. Clinicians now know how to approach depression in children and treatment for it.
The parent's knowledge of children's' depression has increased as well.