Episode 5 If the NCBTS is the measure of a global teacher, can the teacher you interviewed be able to meet the challenges of global education? YES! We've all. YES YOU SAID THE ANSWER. HOW THEIR IS TOO MANY TEACHERS IN THE WORLD PERIOD THAT IS HOW, WE NEED MORE WORK. Analyzes seven barriers to teaching global education, focusing on teacher education, teaching with a global perspective should become more manageable.
Many references from 35 years ago still resonate with current discussions. But it is also discouraging to recognize how little progress has been made over the past three decades.
Also in part one, global perspectives will be differentiated from multicultural perspectives. They are regularly confused, one for the other. Are they connected in any way?
Does one have more influence than the other? In part two, I will provide an overview of readings and research that have helped me develop my approach to teaching for global, transcultural perspectives.
The concept of cultural competence will be introduced as a necessary component in the development of global, trans-cultural perspectives. A theoretical model will be introduced that captures my current thinking about how best to prepare teachers to teach using globalization as a central theme. When coupled with related pedagogical techniques, the model provides a framework for teachers and curriculum writers interested in exploring the themes of globalization in the curriculum.
In part three, the characteristics of a global perspective will be discussed. My research with undergraduate students related to global perspectives in teacher preparation is presented. As well, some areas in need of further research will be discussed. Part three concludes with a summation of the chapter.
Jongewaard — Chapter 15 Revision — 1. Historical and anthropological references to what we might call globalization go back as far as the first traders and explorers who wandered out of the Great Rift Valley, at first leading the way and later encountering others who had gone before.
Space travel and the Internet are just two examples of more recent human activity that have introduced the elements of increasing speeds and shrinking distances. Two major effects of globalization are at the core of any such attempts at definition. The blurring of borders, both psychological and political, is a phenomenon of globalization often included in these discussions.
While we all acknowledge the shrinking world made possible via electronic communications and sub-orbital flight, there comes with it a corollary effect of global expansion, the rapidly expanding potential for increased human interaction. It is a paradox with consequences for teachers and schools.
Having noted two key features of globalization, a relatively recent definition follows: Thirty years ago, when the field was first being developed in pre-university education, it was defined in very basic terms: What about curricular content, effective teaching methods and social context?
For example, two aspects of the social context question worth exploring are 1 how the concept of cultural pluralism fits into the globalization conversation, and 2 how the field of multicultural education interfaces with that of global education.
How we define and connect these two has philosophical, curricular and pedagogical implications. Unlike global education, which has had only a modest impact on schools, multicultural education has become a dominant narrative in teacher training, curriculum development and most forms of social intercourse beyond the schools. However, I want to suggest here that an overemphasis on multiculturalism can actually inhibit the attainment of a global perspective.
And it is because of that concern that the interdependent relationship of these two fields of study needs to be better understood. It is to see these differences as a positive force in the continuing development of a society that professes a wholesome respect for the intrinsic worth of every individual. Cultural pluralism is more than a temporary accommodation to placate racial and ethnic minorities.
It is a concept that aims towards a heightened sense of being and wholeness of the entire society based on the unique strengths of each of its parts [emphasis added]. However, it does provide an important marker as an early precursor to global perspectives. James Banks, professor of social studies, civic education and multicultural studies at the University of Washington in Seattle, emerged as an early leader in the establishment of multicultural education as a field of study.
He also is interested in defining the two concepts. According to Banksa global perspective deals with ethnic diversity in countries outside the United States and a multicultural perspective deals with ethnic diversity within the United States.
And it is here that I begin to see the potential for problems with a focus either on people and cultures at home, or people and cultures abroad, because this leads to an approach that at best presents a false dichotomy.
I also perceive a danger for our society and the larger community of nations if the civic education of the next generation focuses so exclusively on multiculturalism, whether at home or abroad. We risk getting stuck in an earlier, incomplete stage of civic identity, that of individual cultural identity.
However, I do believe there is a developmental connection between multicultural and global perspectives. In fact, one stage leads to the next, each successive stage dependent on the former. This leads me to a second paradox of globalization. The Second Paradox of Globalization The operating assumption among some advocates of the multicultural approach seems to be that once self-identity diversity and mutual respect multiculturalism get established, the necessary global perspectives will follow.
The stages of individual and group identity, while necessary, are stages that without further development can lead to multiculturalism of the worst sort, a Balkanization of peoples and perspectives that can give rise to highly prescriptive forms of identity, and at the nation-state level, a real potential for a reactive, hyper-identification all too familiar even in the opening decade of the 21st century.
The second paradox of globalization is thus identified, the tension between global blurring on the one hand, the free-flow of ideas, values and structures, and its corollary, the reactionary reassertion of global boundaries, the establishment of prescriptive identities and geographic limits.
According to these authors, this individual identity movement in the schools emerged out of the Civil Rights movement in the United States in response to four earlier stages of schooling emphasis which they label, in historical order: The fifth stage suggested above, that of individualism and diversity, seems to be a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement.
But is this focus on individual identity sufficient for living life the 21st century? How can we ensure that we are preparing citizens to function in the border-blurred environment of globalization? In the second part of the chapter I will move these questions and paradoxes into a developmental framework designed to incorporate them, and that leads to what we might think of as a sixth stage necessary for living in the 21st century, that of trans-cultural competence. Toward an Attainable Global Perspective Genesis of the Trans-Cultural Model The theoretical models from which I have derived my own developmental model range from political to philosophical to psychological.
According to them, we move through stages, based on biological imperative, through experience in the world, or both. With a Piagetian approach, a teacher could expect a student to be able to do certain levels of work based on predetermined chronological age ranges. The model being described in this section of the chapter draws from both.
Dewey, for example, discusses democracy as a an expression of individuality, b as a process of social inquiry, and c as a function of the protection of popular interests.
I arrange them in this order because I see a developmental movement from individual interests to popular interests, or the common good, mediated by the social inquiry process he describes. The ethical caring described by Noddings is also a practical manifestation of this stage.
I believe each level is necessary, more or less in order, and in this sense my model is developmental. Also implied in the model is the difficulty of transitioning from an earlier to a later stage if there are components missing, or if there is an incomplete development of the prior stage. Thus, the stages are interdependent, building on one another. In combination, these earlier models suggest a third paradox of globalization.
I would assert that individual freedoms are dependent on some arrangement for the common good, and it is because of and through those arrangements for the betterment and protection of the whole that individuals gain their freedoms. It is my opinion that many educators have this formula reversed. They maintain that if we first work on the self-esteem of the individual and get that right, creating confident, just individuals, the impetus for the common good will emerge.
Can you meet the challenges of being a global teacher
Indeed, it is a chicken-and-egg paradox. Do just societies develop from a just group of individuals, or does a just society produce them? Broken down into the essentials for classroom practice, teachers are regularly reminding their students that with each right they claim for themselves, they invoke a parallel responsibility to the group. It is within this context of classroom rules for the common classroom good that individual students gain their rights and freedoms.
This interdependence of group and individual is the third paradox inherent in the development of global perspectives being advocated in this paper.
A working definition of globalization is in order as we consider this final phase of development. For our purposes, we revisit the definition offered earlier, that globalization is the flow of technology, economy, knowledge, people, values and ideas…across borders.
Essential to the attainment of a global perspective is an understanding of the stages involved in its development. What follows is a discussion of cultural competence, the concept that undergirds and ultimately defines global perspectives. Three Stages in the Development of Cultural Competence In his book on perception and identity theory, Marshall Singer posits that individual behavior patterns are based on individual perceptions of the world, which are largely learned.
The greater the experiential and biological differences between individuals, the greater the potential disparity in their perceptions of the world Singer, This range of difference guarantees a diversity of perceptions in any classroom. Singer goes on to say that people of similar world-views who communicate these similarities to one another can be termed an identity or affinity group. Subsequent patterns of perceptions, values, attitudes and behaviors that are accepted and expected within these identity groups are called cultures Since cultures are learned and transmitted from generation to generation Kohls,teachers play an important role, for better or for worse, in this process of cultural transmission.
It is forged primarily within the immediate family and community context, but it can be facilitated and reinforced at school. In this stage the concepts of diversity and identity are introduced. This is the pluribus stage from the American motto e pluribus unum.
Students often come to school not fully formed, perhaps even conflicted about their cultural identity. In addition, because public education is an important social institution, and because social institutions are constructed and controlled by the dominant culture in any given society, the culture reflected in the schools will be that of the dominant culture.
This complex of cultures coming together in school cannot be ignored. They see an important part of their work to be helping each of their students feel welcome and respected for their true selves, to help their students see themselves reflected in the curriculum and the pedagogy of the classroom.
Our students need to be culturally rooted. This is the critical first step. The second stage in the development of cultural competence is the multicultural stage. Most of this development occurs away from home and can be positively facilitated at school and reinforced in the family. An awareness of self and other develops, the beginnings of globalization at the individual level. This stage introduces the concepts of pluralism and community. At its best, this stage helps students develop an understanding of how the pluribus and the unum can and must co-exist.
Researchers in social studies education have noted that the typical age-range for this developmental stage is between the ages of eight and fourteen Anderson, ; Torney, Schools have tended to focus on multiculturalism, and rightly so, but often to the point of Jongewaard — Chapter 15 Revision — 1.
One has to ask, after all these years have we taken a wrong turn along the way? Lopez cautions that an overemphasis on ethnic and cultural difference could create the perception that no common educational means or ends exist, resulting in a default curriculum geared to the majority.
Further, Lopez expresses the concern that culturally relevant education could artificially create an ethnic-cultural model or merely substitute one model of corporate identity and conformity for another. Finally, he cautions that an over-emphasis on pluralism could restrict American cultural varieties from evolving freely by imposing cultural norms either for minority or majority cultures, substituting one set of external definitions of relevance for another see Lopez, pp.
To attempt to fix cultures too securely in time and space is to deny the imperative of cultural evolution. Where teachers tend to err in their current approaches to multicultural education is in their focus on identifying difference, delineating power relationships and rehearsing these contested histories.
This is a necessary step, but we can get stuck there and in the process, we end up establishing cultural limits and ideological boundaries instead of building bridges within and across cultures.
What characterizes effective multicultural education, appropriate in a global era? Multicultural education should be future oriented. We need to take another step. This leads to a third and final stage in cultural competence, that of trans-cultural competence.
Sometimes referred to as a set of skills for intercultural understanding or cross-cultural communication, this essential third stage introduces concepts such as interdependence, cultural relativism and germane to the discussion here, global perspectives.
This stage can be positively facilitated at school and reinforced at home. What does a culturally competent teacher look like? In this next section I will explore the profile of a culturally competent teacher, looking at the essential precursors to trans-cultural competence and global perspectives. From the Local to the Global First, culturally competent teachers have well-developed cultural identities. This is particularly important for teachers, and perhaps especially important for teachers from the dominant culture.
Because social Jongewaard — Chapter 15 Revision — 1.
Ladson-Billings, Thus grounded in their own sense of true-self, teachers are better equipped to help their students on their respective cultural journeys. They become culturally rooted. This activity constitutes most of what takes place in school relative to the first stage of cultural development. These teachers modify the curriculum to better reflect the lived experience of their students.
In addition, they work to stretch their students in new directions, providing them with the knowledge and skills necessary for effective multicultural interaction, encouraging them to be culturally curious. Third, culturally competent teachers help their students to become confident, competent participants in the creation of fresh perspectives and deeper cultural understandings.
They assist their students in further refinement of their own true-self cultures and to use the first developmental stage as the foundation upon which to build the ability to seek and celebrate difference, to communicate effectively across cultural differences, to embrace change.
At this final stage, students become culturally mobile, cultural cosmopolitans who can be at home in the world. In part three the concept of global perspectives will be further developed. Characteristics of teachers and students with global perspectives will be delineated. While it is beyond the scope of this chapter to explore completely, the implications for curriculum content and pedagogical techniques will also be discussed.
Global Perspectives and Future Directions Characteristics of a Global Perspective in Teachers and Students What are the characteristics of a global perspective in general, and for teachers in particular?
What research and theoretical literature is available to provide us with a set of characteristics that can be taught, practiced and measured in our teachers and in their students? These questions provide the focus for the next section of the chapter. What follows is a look at several sets of characteristics that have emerged in the literature over the past 30 years.
Robert Hanvey's seminal article, "An Attainable Global Perspective"delineated the following goals for global education: In their book Global teacher, global learnerPike and Selby provide a list of characteristics of a global teacher.
Can you meet challenges of being a global teacher? How?
Their early work presages the model presented in this paper, especially in their use of the terms ethnocentric, nationcentric and globalcentric. They said the global teacher: More recently, significant cross-national research has been conducted to determine from educational and political leaders in six countries what should be the essential skills for the citizens of the 21st century.
In the book that followed, Citizenship for the 21st century: An international perspective on educationauthors Cogan and Derricot introduce the concept of multidimensional citizenship, consisting of four core dimensions and related skills. Teachers and students, 21st century citizens with global perspectives, will exhibit some key citizenship traits across the following four dimensions: Professor Wagner interviewed business and civic leaders involved in the global economy and visited schools where global education was a stated emphasis.
He asks the simple but provocative question: Based on his research, students will need these in the workplace and in their daily lives as citizens: Wagner suggests the seven skills needed, as outlined above, and notes that most schools are not teaching these skills systematically, and not to all students.
Nevertheless, they present us with a comprehensive set of knowledge, skills and dispositions, with a heavy emphasis on skills and dispositionsthat we need to take into account if we are to successfully prepare teachers to meet the challenges of their 21st century classrooms. Great teachers have always demonstrated a good portion of these global characteristics and skills.
They have to cut the use of chemical fertilizers whose run-off pollutes our waterways, and promote organic farming, worm farms and composting. And we can all play a part. We have to demand that our governments act now. Carbon Dioxide is produced whenever oil, gas and coal are burned Most electricity comes from coal-fired power stations.
So if we all did a little more of some of these it would help slow global warming: Stop using so much electricity. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. Turn off TVs etc at the wall instead of with the remote. Hang your clothes out to dry. Use public transport or bicycle. Recycle all those cans and plastic bottles. Buy local food and eat it all.
Wear warmer clothes instead of turning up the heating. Oh, and talk to your local government member about how urgent this is. Methane is produced when organic matter decomposes anaerobically without air.
This happens in the intestines of some animals humans tooand in landfill garbage dumps. There are millions of cattle, pigs and sheep all over the world being raised for us to eat.
So every time we eat meat some farmer has to buy an extra animal just to make up for it.