Relate selected theories of leadership and management to organizational outcomes. 4. Discuss the role of nursing leadership in managing a clinical discipline. AONE KEY . They look beyond the unit they head and grasp its relationship to larger realities In some sources, the term leading has replaced the term direct-. There are significant relations between leader power bases and subordinates' job stress. who are interested in effective leadership styles in these types of hotels. .. and turnover of nursing employees”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. This quantitative study aimed to empirically evidence the relationship between the power bases of the leader and the leadership styles of nurses. The random.
For example, at the scene of a crime, people usually comply with the orders of a uniformed police officer based simply on their shared belief that he or she has the predetermined authority to give such orders. In a corporate setting, employees comply with the orders of a manager who relies on legitimate power based on the position in the organizational hierarchy that the manager holds. Yet, although employees may comply based on legitimate power, they may not feel a sense of commitment or cooperation.
Relationship between nurses' leadership styles and power bases
Reward power, as the name implies, rests on the ability of a manager to give some sort of reward to employees. These rewards can range from monetary compensation to improved work schedules. Reward power often does not need monetary or other tangible compensation to work when managers can convey various intangible benefits as rewards. Walton relies heavily on these intangible awards, indicating that "nothing else can quite substitute for a few well-chosen, well-timed, sincere words of praise.
They are absolutely free-and worth a fortune". When reward power is used in a flexible manner, it can prove to be a strong motivator, as Crosby, Deming, and others have shown.(*FIVE TYPES*) of (*POWER IN LEADERSHIP*)
Still, when organizations rely too rigidly on rewards, the system can backfire. Employees may be tempted to unethically or even illegally meet the quotas to which overly rigid reward systems may be tied. Another problem associated with rewards as a base for power is the possibility that the rewards will divert employees' attention from their jobs and focus their attention instead on the rewards dangled before them.
Referent power derives from employees' respect for a manager and their desire to identify with or emulate him or her. In referent power, the manager leads by example. Referent power rests heavily on trust.
It often influences employees who may not be particularly aware that they are modeling their behavior on that of the manager and using what they presume he or she would do in such a situation as a point of reference. The concept of empowerment in large part rests on referent power. Referent power may take considerable time to develop and thus may not prove particularly effective in a workforce with a rapid turnover of personnel. One common error in applying referent power in cross-cultural situations, however, comes in misunderstanding the ways in which employees identify with their superiors.
Since identification with one's superior in the United States is hampered by symbols of legitimate power for example, titles or dressthose who advocate its use encourage managers to dress down to the level of their employees and use terms such as "facilitator" and "coach" coupled with "associates" and "group members" rather than "boss" and "subordinates.
Thus, referent power may be more cross-culturally variable than the other four bases of power laid out by French and Raven. Imberman describes how specialized training is now used in the grocery industry to train Latino immigrants in the democratic supervisory techniques of U. In the past, when these men and women were promoted to supervisory positions, they tended to rely heavily on the Latino model of authoritarianism under which they were raised. The managerial style hindered their ability to effectively supervise employees or to garner the respect they were seeking.
To remedy this situation, specialized training programs are now utilized. The end result is effective and confident supervisors, motivated workers, higher productivity, less waste, and better customer service. Expert power rests on the belief of employees that an individual has a particularly high level of knowledge or highly specialized skill set.
Managers may be accorded authority based on the perception of their greater knowledge of the tasks at hand than their employees. Interestingly, in expert power, the superior may not rank higher than the other persons in a formal sense. Thus, when an equipment repair person comes to the CEO's office to fix a malfunctioning piece of machinery, no question exists that the CEO outranks the repair person; yet regarding the specific task of getting the machine operational, the CEO is likely to follow the orders of the repair person.
Expert power has within it a built-in point of weakness: If a manager shares knowledge or skill instruction with his or her employees, in time they will acquire a similar knowledge base or skill set. As the employees grow to equal the manager's knowledge or skills, their respect for the superiority of his expertise diminishes. The result is either that the manager's authority diminishes or that the manager intentionally chooses not to share his or her knowledge base or skill set with the employees.
The former choice weakens the manager's authority over time, while the latter weakens the organization's effectiveness over time. By contrast, several experts have more recently begun to reconfigure how power is viewed to a more multidimensional interweaving of relations or conflicting needs.
For example, Robert Grant et al. Because these two paradigms are grounded in two independent sources of authority, they produce different but coexisting dimensions of power.
It has also been argued that authority is culturally based. Geert Hofstede, in one of the most thorough empirical surveys on cross-cultural influences on work-related values, delineated marked differences in what he called "power distance.
Thus, views regarding both power and leadership shape the conception of authority within an organization. And because both these facets of authority conception differ drastically from culture to culture, authority itself is conceived of differently from society to society. Consequently, no single dimension of authority and power is likely to hold equally for all managers and employees in a multicultural domestic setting or in the multicultural milieu of the multinational corporation.
Finally, one can also argue against the one-dimensional view of authority and power when they are viewed not as independent elements in the abstract, but as intrinsically derived from relations within the organization.
Power and authority are multidimensional because relationships are by nature multidimensional. As with leadership styles, each base of power has its place in management and can prove effective in the right setting and right circumstances.
Along with leadership styles, there is much similarity and terminology crossover in the study of leadership theories; researchers should examine both terms in the available literature to access the full spectrum of knowledge on the topic of leadership. As its name states, the situation is particularly relevant in this theory. Previously, in other theoretical approaches, the effective leader was considered to have a set of specific characteristics or attributes.
In the same way, other approaches focused on identifying the appropriate behavior and style in any situation. The SLT, without invalidating the previous one, emphasizes the adjustment between leaders' behavior and situational demands. Authors of the SLT 1 identify the leadership style based on two dimensions of the leader's conduct: Relationship behavior is defined as the conducts that facilitate communication with subordinates, including support to them, if necessary.
Inthe 3D Leadership Theory was presented 4introducing effectiveness as the third dimension. Under this viewpoint, relationship and task conducts would not be sufficient, and effectiveness would depend on the degree of adjustment between the leader's style and the circumstance of the situation.
Authors of the SLT 5 previously adopted the idea of a third dimension to achieve leadership effectiveness. Of all possible variables that configure the situation, they identified the subordinates' maturity or preparation as the most relevant situational variable. The readiness of the subordinates is concretized in their ability and willingness. The first refers to the experience and skill of the individual to perform a given task, and the second to the motivation to perform it.
This theoretical model considers that there are four leadership styles, resulting from the combination of task behavior and relationship behavior. These two dimensions are independent; four leadership styles emerge from them, described as follows. Style 1 S1 - telling - is characterized by above-average task behavior and below-average relationship behavior.
Style 2 S2 - selling - is characterized by both task and relationship behavior above average. Style 3 S3 - participating - is characterized by above-average relationship behavior and below-average task behavior. Style 4 S4 - delegating - both relationship behavior and task behavior below average. According to the authors of the SLT 1each level of readiness corresponds to a certain leadership style. Thus, level 1 of readiness corresponds to S1, level 2 corresponds to S2 and so on.
The great appeal and dissemination of the model among leaders is well known 6. According to several researchers 7the probability of successful leadership increases when the style reflects the appropriate power base.
This study aimed to verify whether the power bases used correspond to the theory, which led to the need of defining and describing what power is. Power has been defined as the potential an individual has to influence another. Leadership is any effort exerted to influence and power is its potential influence, the resource that permits influencing.
Different classification systems of power bases have been proposed. Among them, the classification below is the most disseminated. It 10 identifies five bases of power. Coercive power - is the perception of the subordinate on the leader's capacity to enforce punishments.
Reward power - subordinates recognize the leader's capacity to offer gratifications. Legitimate power - this power is related to the leader's position or function.
Referent power - the leader inspires positive admiration and affection in subordinates. Expert power - subordinates recognize the leader as someone with experience and ability. A sixth power base was added later, the information power, which is the leader's ability to obtain relevant information for subordinates.
Years later, the set of power was configured with the addition of another type of power, the connection power 11which is defined as the subordinates' perception of the leader's ability to connect with influential people or organizations. The SLT was finally completed by adding the relationship between the power bases and the leadership styles 7.
In this model, a specific match is prescribed between each of the power bases and the most appropriate style leaders should apply to exert the strongest possible influence on their followers. These assumptions of the model are tested in this study. In the last decades, nurses have occupied managerial jobs in the health system. This and other studies 12 provide useful scientific knowledge to the exercise of new positions and competences. Thus, the following premises are presented: Participants Nursing professionals from a public hospital in Granada, Spain.
The study was authorized by the Research Committee of the Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, responsible for complying with the ethical aspects of the research. Sample Simple random, with out of nursing professionals. The nursing professionals who were part of the sample were first located and then visited at their workplace. They were given a letter of presentation with the objectives of the research and asked to sign the free and informed consent to participate in this research.
Those who accepted were informed how to collaborate and their anonymity was guaranteed. The percentage of answers was The average age was The age interval ranged from 22 to 62 years. Measurement instruments The SBDQ Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire was used to measure the leadership style 13as it provides data in two behavior dimensions Initiating Structure and consideration, assimilable to the task and relationship behaviors, respectively.
In recent decades, it has been extensively applied in research in different organizations. SBDQ is a item questionnaire that describes the behavior of the leader, using a 5-point scale in the answers.
Among the items, 28 correspond to the dimension of Consideration and the others to the Initiating Structure dimension. As there is no SBDQ normative data parameter, the median was used to establish the cut-off point between the high and low values in each dimension.
The Power Perception Profile was used to measure the perception of power Each of the seven power bases is compared to the others, so as to obtain 21 pairs of compared statements. In each of the pairs, the interviewee has to assign three points aiming to obtain the score for each source of power. Data analysis First, descriptive analysis was carried out, with mean, median, standard deviation or percentages and frequencies, according to quantitative or qualitative variables, respectively.
Finally, ten logistic regressions were estimated to verify the probability of using a determined leadership style, according to the different types of power.
Scores can range from 0 to Results were subsequently analyzed in relation to the leadership styles through the following procedure.
Firstly, the scores of the 28 first items of the SBDQ were summed, to determine the score in the relationship dimension. Secondly, the results of the last 20 items were summed to obtain the score in the task dimension. Thirdly, the median of the relationship dimension, 65, and of the task dimension, 36, were used to classify the leaders with high and low scores in the dimensions. The score 65 in the relationship dimension was included in the high category.
The score 36, obtained in the task dimension, was included in the high category.