Symbiotic Relationship - Mutual-ism of Flowers & Butterfly
The first example of symbiotic mutualism is the interaction between butterflies and flowers. Butterflies generally by goberabadi. BUTTERFLY&FLOWER SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP. The flowers provide food - in the form of sweet nectar. The butterflies pollinate the flowers. They both have. Symbiosis - an inter-dependent relationship between two or on the flowers of thyme Thymus pulegioides, but after a few weeks.
Other species have become immune to the toxins, but store them within their bodies so that they become poisonous themselves. These species usually "advertise" their acquired unpalatability to birds, by evolving bright warning colours.
Consequently most birds leave these butterflies alone, but some have found ways of dealing with them. In the rainforests of Amazonia many butterfly species are involved in " mimicry complexes " whereby several different species with varying degrees of toxicity share almost identical wing patterns that warn birds about their actual or supposed poisonous nature. The toxic models include orange and black "Tiger" butterflies in the tribes Danaini and Ithomiini, and near-identical mimics from the Heliconiinae, Nymphalinae and Dismorphiinae.
Although relatively little is known about the lifecycles and ecology of the majority of butterflies and moths, it seems likely that a large number of species are involved in mutually beneficial relation-ships with other organisms.
In some cases the relationship is obvious and simple - e. Symbiosis - an inter-dependent relationship between two or more organisms Large Blues Maculinea arion, have a symbiotic relationship with Myrmica sabuleti ants The caterpillars of many members of the family Lycaenidae have evolved to become carnivorous, feeding on ant grubs, aphids or coccids.
One of the best studied examples is larva of the Large Blue which feeds when very small on the flowers of thyme Thymus pulegioides, but after a few weeks, when it has reached it's fourth instar, it secretes pheromones which induce a species of red ant Myrmica sabuleti, to carry it underground into the ant's nest. For the rest of it's life, the larva eats ant grubs!
The larva is tolerated by the ants because they are able to "milk" it, obtaining a sugary substance which is exuded from its dorsal "honey gland". The larva hibernates, and later pupates in the ant's nest. When the butterfly emerges from the pupa, it uses another pheromone to appease the ants, enabling it to crawl unharmed along the ant tunnels to reach the surface above, where it can dry it's wings and fly away.
The Large Blue is totally dependent on the ant Myrmica sabuleti for it's survival. The ants also have their own specialised requirements regarding habitat, which greatly limits the areas in which the butterfly can breed. If the ant colonies die out, the Large Blue colonies die out.
Generalists and specialists The Large Blue is an example of a highly evolved specialist. Most butterflies are less specialised, but still have quite precise requirements regarding habitats, larval foodplants, adult food sources and climate. A typical example is the White-letter Hairstreak, a butterfly of temperate deciduous woodlands, which exists in very localised colonies, often based on a single elm tree.
The butterfly lays it's eggs on elm twigs, and the caterpillars hatch a few days after the flowers appear on the tree in early spring. When tiny they feed within the flowers, but when the flowers have withered and died they feed openly on the elm leaves. The adult butterflies emerge in mid-summer and spend most of their lives at the top of the trees, but occasionally descend to feed on the nectar of thistles and other flowers.
In a "normal" summer the females lay all of their eggs on the same individual tree upon which they fed as larvae. The same happens with most other butterfly species - in normal seasons they are surprisingly sedentary in behaviour, so much so that many species never fly more than a hundred metres or so away from their emergence site.
In exceptionally warm summers, females still tend to lay most of their eggs on their home territory, but later disperse, migrating across the countryside in search of other suitable sites where they can lay their remaining eggs. Sites for this species need to have an abundance of dog violets the caterpillar's foodplantand bugle the main nectar source used by the adults.
The sites also need to meet fairly strict criteria regarding temperature and humidity. Furthermore, because the caterpillars hibernate during the winter, the areas where they feed must be exposed to sunlight at the critical stage when they reawaken in early spring. The number of sites which fulfil all these criteria is very limited, so the butterfly is generally restricted to sunny clearings in woodland, where violets and bugle grow in profusion.
Pearl-bordered Fritillaries Clossiana euphrosyne, depend on transitional woodland habitats Habitat management Woodland clearings are of course an unstable habitat - bare ground is quickly colonised by coarse grasses, then by bramble and bracken, or is replanted with new trees. Either way, the clearing quickly becomes overgrown, and the violets and bugle get shaded out. When this happens, the clearing is no longer capable of supporting the butterflies.
If they are unable to colonise another clearing in the immediate vicinity, the butterflies die out. When woodland management changes on a national scale, and becomes incompatible with the requirements of a particular species of butterfly, the result is that the species follows a trend of decline, and ultimately becomes extinct.
The catastrophe threshold Each species has it's own "catastrophe threshold" - once the amount of suitable breeding habitat falls below a certain level local extinctions occur and the species contracts towards areas where more extensive areas of suitable habitat remain.
Even then the species often continues to decline because the gene pool is reduced. Reduction, fragmentation and isolation of habitats means there is little or no opportunity for fresh genetic material to arrive, and ultimately the species is lost. If butterflies and other wildlife are to survive, it is vital that conservation and land management are coordinated at national level to ensure that sufficient areas of habitat are maintained in suitable condition throughout the country. Pollinating animals include bees, butterflies, beetles, moths, hummingbirds, and bats.
Bees and butterflies are important pollinating insects. Honey bees are the best known pollinators due to the important role they play in pollinating numerous food crops. Many of the farming practices we have developed are dependent on managed honey bee hives. Perhaps less known is that lots of plants, not just food crops, need pollinators and that other species of bees and butterflies play a crucial role in their pollination.
5 of the most famous symbiotic relationships between flora and fauna in the garden
Bees and flowers Bees are the most prolific pollinators in nature. They spend the majority of their time searching for pollen and nectar as they are the main sources of food for themselves and their young. There are over 4, different species of native bees in the United States alone. Surprising to most, the honey bee is not one of them.
Honey bees were imported to North America by English settlers. Flowers that have evolved to attract bees as their main pollinators often are full of nectar and colored bright white, yellow, or blue. Bees cannot see the color red, which may be why flowers with red colors do not tend to attract bees.
Bees have branched hairs that pick up pollen while they are feeding. Some bees have even developed basketlike structures on their hind legs that allow them to carry pollen. A number of plants have evolved mechanisms that only allow certain bees to receive their nectar and pollinate them.
For example, different species of bees have many different lengths of tongues. Some flowers store their nectar in areas inaccessible to bees with short tongues.
Symbiosis: Butterflies & Flowers | VanCleave's Science Fun
Other plants have evolved even more complex structures to keep certain pollinators from getting to their nectar. Snapdragons produce irregularly shaped flowers that keep nectar and pollen closed away. Only bees of the correct weight are able to open the flower to expose the nectar and pollen when they land on its landing pad. Butterflies and flowers Unlike bees, butterflies can see the color red, so many of the flowers they are attracted to are colored bright red, pink, or purple.
Similar to bees, butterflies can see light in the UV spectrum and lots of the flowers that attract butterflies have areas that reflect UV light to guide the butterfly to the nectar. Butterflies are also lured to a flower by its fragrance.
- Bees, Butterflies, and Flowers
- Symbiosis: Butterflies & Flowers
- The Mutualism Relationships of the Butterfly
They use their feet to taste and need to land to feed. The flowers that often attract butterflies have larger landing pads near the source of nectar. A butterfly drinks nectar through its proboscis, a long strawlike tube that is part of its mouth.
The nectar of flowers visited by butterflies is often deeply hidden where only butterfly proboscises can reach. As butterflies feed, they may also pick up pollen on their legs, mouth, and wings.
When they travel to another flower, there is a chance the pollen will be transferred and reproduction will take place. Decline of pollinators Plants have evolved to depend on pollinators to reproduce. Without the animals that carry pollen from plant to plant, genetic variation would be greatly decreased and the survival of many species would be in question.
Over the past few decades we have seen a measurable loss in the number of both managed and native bee populations, along with a decline in butterfly populations. We depend on pollination for many of our staple foods, as do many other organisms. Approximately one-third of the food produced globally is dependent on pollinating insects. The decline in pollinators can be attributed to many different factors. Land development often greatly reduces or eliminates habitats needed by pollinators.