Fictive kinship - Wikipedia
PDF | This study explores the affinal (marriage kinship) relations and terminologies in Example 1: Forms of kinship in the Holy Quran (descent and marriage). Unlike blood relatives, affinal relations are based upon a legality or contract. Although For example, if your biological father gets married, his wife is then your. In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity ( blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage. It is the relationship which each party to a marriage has to the relations of the Under the law, such relatives by marriage are known as affines.
These two aspects of human life are the basis for the two main types of kinship in society.Kinship in Hindi - What is Kinship in Hindi - Sociology
It refers to the relationships based on blood, i. It refers to the relationships formed on the basis of marriage.
Kinship: Meaning, Types and Other Details
The most basic relationship that results from marriage is that between husband and wife. Any relationship between two individuals is based on the degree of closeness or distance of that relationship. This closeness or distance of any relationship depends upon how individuals are related to each other. Kinship basically has three degrees, which can be explained in the following ways Figure 3: Primary kinship refers to direct relations. People who are directly related to each other are known as primary kin.
Primary kinship is of two kinds: Primary consanguineal kin are those kin, who are directly related to each other by birth. The relationships between parents and children and between siblings form primary kinship. These are the only primary consanguineal kin found in societies all over the world. There are 33 secondary kin. Secondary kinship is also of two kinds: In the Figure 3, there is a direct consanguineal relationship between Ego and his parents.
For Ego, his parents are his primary consanguineal kin. For him, they become secondary consanguineal kin. Like other two degrees of kinship, tertiary kinship also has two categories: Let us try and understand these relationships with the help of an illustration.
Descent refers to the existence of socially recognized biological relationship between individuals in society. In general, every society recognizes the fact that all offspring or children descend from parents and that a biological relationship exists between parents and children.
Lineage refers to the line through which descent is traced. Importance of Kinship in Rural Society: It is important to study kinship, as it helps in sociological and anthropological theory building. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations.
However, except a few, no substantial work has been done on villages. Kinship relations have been studied by the Indian sociologists or anthropologists. Most of them have concentrated on village, caste, family and other social institutions in rural areas. Few sociologists and anthropologists, such as, Irawati Karve, Rivers, and T.
Madan have made certain notable contributions to the institution of kinship.
The prime property of any rural family is land. So, land is related to all the kin members of the family. The sons, grandsons and other kins, who are related by blood and marriage, have their economic interests in land. In most of the village studies, property and kinship are discussed in relation to each other.
Kinship: Meaning, Types and Other Information
Similarly, sister is may primary kin but her husband is my secondary kin. Thirdly, there are tertiary kins: They are the secondary kin of our primary kin or primary kin of our secondary kin.
Thus the wife of brother-in-law sala called sarhaj in Hindi is tertiary kin because brother-in- law is my secondary kin and his wife is the primary kin of brother-in-law.
Similarly the brother-in-law of my brother is my tertiary kin because the brother is my primary kin and his brother-in-law is the secondary kin of my brother. According to Murdock, there are thirty-three secondary and tertiary kins of a person.
Kinship terms are those terms which are used in designating kin of various types. Morgan made an important study of kinship terms. He classified these terms into: Under the classificatory system the various kins are included in one category and all referred to by the same term.
It is used for chacha, mama, mausa, foofa, taoo, etc. Thus, people of various age groups are designated by the same term. Among Angami Naga, the same term is used for members of opposite sexes. Under descriptive system one term refers to only one relation. It describes the exact relation of a person towards another. For example, father is a descriptive term. Similarly, mother is a descriptive term.
In Hindi we have mostly, descriptive terms, Thus, the terms chacha mama. It may be remarked that there is no place in the world where either the pure descriptive or the pure classificatory system is used. Both the systems are found prevalent. The study of kinship system does not end with the description of various kinds of kin and the basis of their classification but it also includes the study of behaviour patterns of different kins.
Every relationship involves a particular type of behaviour. The behaviour of a son towards his father is one of respect while the behaviour of husband towards wife is one of love. The behaviour of a brother towards his sister is one of affection.
There are some usages which regulate the behaviour of different kin. These usages are called kinship usages. Some of these usages are the following: In all societies the usage of avoidance is observed in one form or another.
It means that the two kins should remain away from each other. In other words, they should avoid each other. They should not only avoid sexual relationship but in some cases avoid seeing the face of each other. Thus, a father-in-law sasur should avoid daughter-in-law. The purdah system in Hindu family illustrates the usage of avoidance. Different explanations have been given for the usage of avoidance. Two of them are functionalist explanations given by Redcliff Brown and G.
According to them, avoidance serves to forestall further and more serious trouble between relatives. The third is the Freudian explanation according to which avoidances represent a sort of institutionalized neurotic symptom. It is the reverse of avoidance relationship.
Under it a relation is permitted to tease or make fun of the other. The relationship between devar-bhabhi, jija-sali is joking relationship. The joking may amount to exchange of abuse and vulgar references to sex. According to this usage, a kin is not referred to directly but he is referred to through another kin.
A kin becomes the medium of reference between two kins. Thus, in traditional Hindu family a wife does not utter the name of her husband.
She calls him through her son or daughter. He is referred to by her as the father of Guddu or Tunnu. This kinship usage is a peculiar feature of matriarchal system. It gives to the maternal uncle mama a prominent place in the life of his nephews and nieces. He has special obligations towards them which exceed those of father.
- Fictive kinship
- Affinity (law)
- What Is an Affinal Kinship?